To understand how this spectacular mountainous landscape within the boundaries of the National Park of Tzoumerka was formed, we need to look back over the history that began millions of years ago and interpret signs left behind through the geological time. The geotectonic zones, from which the area is made up, belong to the Ionian zone and the Olonos-Pindos zone.

The Ionian zone is characterized as a mainland basin featuring semi-pelagic to pelagic sedimentation. The typical tectonic feature is the alternating large geosynclines and anticlines pushing and covering each other westwards.

The Olonos-Pindos zone was named after the Pindos mountain range, where its main spread is found. It is defined as a deep canal between the swells of the Pelagonian and Gavrogos zone. It shows great sedimentation alternations (carbonate, siliceous, clastic). Some ophiolites featuring ultramafic rock are found displaced on the Pindos’ tectonic covering and usually on the flysch.

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